The health burden and economic costs averted by ambient PM2.5 pollution reductions in Nagpur, India.

Etchie, Tunde O. and Sivanesan, Saravanadevi and Adewuyi, Gregory O. and Krishnamurthi, Kannan and Rao, Padma S. and Etchie, Ayotunde T. and Pillarisetti, Ajay and Arora, Narendra K. and Smith, Kirk R. (2017) The health burden and economic costs averted by ambient PM2.5 pollution reductions in Nagpur, India. Environment International, 102. pp. 145-156.

[img] Text (Research Article)
3.3.pdf - Published Version

Download (1MB)
[img] Text

Download (1MB)
Official URL:


National estimates of the health and economic burdens of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in India reveal substantial health and economic impacts. This information is often lacking at the local level. Yet, local level estimates justify and drive mitigation interventions. Here, we assess the health and economic gains resulting from attainment of WHO guidelines for PM2.5 concentrations, including interim target 2 (IT-2), interim target 3 (IT-3) and the WHO air quality guideline (AQG) in Nagpur district to inform policy decision making for mitigation. We conducted detailed assessment of concentrations of PM2.5 in 9 areas, covering urban, peri-urban and rural environments, from February 2013 to June, 2014. We used a combination of hazard and survival analyses based on life table method that separates the dimensions of age and calendar time, to calculate attributed annual number of premature deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) for five health outcomes linked to PM2.5 exposure: acute lower respiratory infection for children <5 years, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke and lung cancer in adults ≥25 years; using GBD 2013 data on deaths and DALYs from the diseases. We calculated averted deaths, DALYs and economic loss resulting from planned reductions in average PM2.5 concentration from current level to IT-2, IT-3 and AQG by the years 2023, 2033 and 2043, respectively. The economic cost for premature mortality was estimated as the product of attributed deaths and value of statistical life for India, while morbidity was assumed to be 10% of the mortality cost. The annual average PM2.5 concentration in Nagpur district is 34±17 µg m-3 and results in 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6, 4.2) thousand premature deaths and 91 (95% CI: 68, 116) thousand DALYs in 2013 with economic loss of USD 2.2 (95% CI: 1.7, 2.8) billion in that year. It is estimated that interventions that achieve IT-2, IT-3 and AQG by 2023, 2033 and 2043, would avert, respectively, 15, 30 and 36%, of the attributed health and economic loss in those years, translating into an impressively large health and economic gain. To achieve this, we recommend an exposure-integrated source reduction approach.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Attributable mortality; outdoor fine particulate matter pollution; urban, rural and peri-urban; burden of disease assessment; disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Depositing User: Dr Tunde Ogbemi Etchie
Date Deposited: 30 Nov 2018 16:57
Last Modified: 30 Nov 2018 16:57

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item